Solely In Black and White: 2012

Sunday, December 9, 2012

Chanukah 2012

Happy Chanukah! 

Tuesday, November 6, 2012

The Perks of a Pet

Who would have thought that having a pet was so beneficial to one's health. I wonder if a toddler counts as a pet? :-) Who knows...  

Via Peter Kim

Tuesday, October 16, 2012

So Who Won the Debate?

Who cares! It wasn't as interesting as this:

Monday, September 3, 2012

Music Makes You Smarter

Music Makes You Smarter Infographic

Courtesy of Peter Kim of 

Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Watching the Baby and Using the Computer

This is what it looks like when I watch LMPH: 

And this is what she looks like when I put her on the floor: 

My baby the ketzela... :-)  

Sunday, July 8, 2012

Judging a Book by its... Shoes

Although it's often thought that judging someone based on their choice of attire is wrong or inaccurate, a new study demonstrates that it might be possible to accurately "judge" a person just by the choice of his or her shoes. Just imagine the implications of that! Maybe people aren't so crazy when they're asking about shoes during shidduch research. (Yeah right...). Anyways, the implications of the study are partially applicable to first date as well as any meeting of first impression! Maybe a book can be judged it's cover after all, at least partially. 

According to a study by researchers at University of Kansas, people could judge a stranger almost exactly by looking at their shoes. A person's age, gender, income, political affiliation, emotional and other important characters were among the personality traits that could be judged by just his/her shoes.

Omri Gillath, lead researcher of the study, said that the style, cost, color, and condition of the shoes were the determinants of the owner's nature. Participants were able to rightly tell about 90% of the owner's characteristics.

For the study, 63 students were given pictures of the most frequently worn shoes of 208 volunteers for the study. The volunteers had filled up a questionnaire consisting questions about their personal traits, choices, lifestyle, etc.

The 63 students then observed the pictures of the shoes of the volunteers and were asked to guess the age, gender, social status, emotional stability, openness, etc. Their answers were matched with the questionnaires filled by the volunteers.

The observers were found to guess the characteristics of the volunteers correctly in almost all categories, and hence the researchers concluded that a lot can be told about a person from the shoes they wear, even if they intend it or not.

Some of the general observation results were
  • Expensive shoes belonged to high earners,
  • Flashy and colorful footwear belonged to extroverts
  • Shoes that were not new but appeared to be spotless belonged to conscientious types
  • Practical and functional shoes generally belonged to agreeable people.
  • Ankle boots fitted with more aggressive personalities
  • Uncomfortable looking shoes were worn by calm personalities.

The report further stated that people who were most worried about their relationships, or people with "attachment anxiety" had well-kept shoes. This could be possibly because they are too concerned about what others think of them.

Also, liberal thinkers wore shabbier and less expensive shoes.
"Shoes convey a thin but useful slice of information about their wearers," the authors wrote. "Shoes serve a practical purpose, and also serve as nonverbal cues with symbolic messages. People tend to pay attention to the shoes they and others wear."

"Shoes have great variety of styles, brands, looks, and functions. Because of this variety, shoes can carry individual difference information, but do they? We suggest that the answer is yes," they concluded.
 The study was published online in the August 2012 edition of the Journal of Research in Personality.

Of course there will always be naysayers who will not accept these profound ideas. What better way to display one's contempt with said research then to sport a pair of shoes that tells the world you could care less? As such, I wonder what the researchers would say about these shoes by Mark McNairy ;-) : 

Mark McNairy "" Collection

Thursday, July 5, 2012

Tuesday, July 3, 2012

Anonymity in Blogging?

I think the idea of true anonymity in blogging is at best an oxymoron and at worst a false sense of security. “It’s a small world after all” is not just a ride and song, but a reality in our small Jewish-geography playing world.  I surmise that many newbie bloggers are lulled into the false security of having an anonymous blog, a clever pen-name, and a mysterious email address supposing (or hoping) that they can blog with impunity. Unfortunately, either right or wrong, that doesn’t seem to be the case. 

Guy Fawkes
I too used to think that blogging could be truly anonymous; especially for those capable of using technical solutions that evade rudimentary tracking, however, even those added steps don’t guarantee success. I know many a cautious blogger who were “outed” by the content of their blog alone. I also know bloggers who were “outed” for purely “technical” or “social” reasons. Rationally, it seems, in my humble opinion, that being identified has become a risk that one must be willing to accept in order to blog. Additionally, with the proliferation of tracking services and innovative methodologies, there is more information than ever before to “snoop” about unsuspecting bloggers and readers. (For a rudimentary example of the information available to most bloggers click here and scroll down.) One such example is cookie sniffing scripts, some of which can basically, and of course politely, asks one’s computer what other websites have been visited. And the list of innovative privacy-invading technologies goes on… 

But it’s not all miserable and dreary. I’d even venture to say that some people have arguably gained more than they have lost by being “outed.” I was even thinking that perhaps it can reasoned that a blog is a better indicator of personality type/interest/ and family nature than a typical shidduch resume. Personally, I’m sometime more inclined to set-up random bloggers than random resumes, but I presume I'm in the minority. 

But even that point aside, I think that the fear of being “outed” keeps one somewhat honest and tempered. For example, if one believes with any modicum of certainty that someone who they know might read a rather scathing or embarrassing post, they would presumably alter their post to reflect that possibility. Second, most of those who have been “outed” don’t have to deal with any significant real-world implications. At least in my situation, It’s not like people are walking over to me on the street and saying “hey nice post yesterday.” That might be a tad much and from what I understand, rather rare. Lastly, as a married blogger I can tell you: at some point, you’re going to have to tell your significant other about your blog. So next time you’re tempted to write something “questionable” consider the fact that someone very near and dear to you might actually read it one day... 

(Note: if you tell your soon to be significant other about your blog while you’re engaged, don't be surprised if they spend the night reading the whole thing! And that my friend is why you need those tracking services! :-) ) 

Oh, on the topic of blogging, just a reminder: deleted posts, aren’t really deleted.  


I was reading Life Lover’s post today on her experience with Internet Stalking and I was thinking about how the internet has been evolving in terms of stalking and online “bullying.” (Post to follow shortly). Fortuitously, I received an email with this related graphic illustration on the state of cyberbullying. Now isn't that convenient?  

Cyberbullying Infographic
Source: Peter Kim

Monday, July 2, 2012

Now that's "Hot" Attire... Summer Dressings of the “Hasidic Jews”

The NYTimes recently ran an interesting story on how “Hasidic Jews” dress during the summer months. Or more aptly, the article titled “Dressing with Faith, Not Heat, and In Mind” described how they don’t really dress differently during the sweltering summer months. Just thinking about the topic makes me feel a tad toasty, so stay cool out there! Lastly, I'm "surprised" the article didn't mention anything deodorant... ;-)  
Tzaddik Web Ready
Oy Vey! via Flickr
Key excerpts provided bellow:

Some New Yorkers who are not Hasidic surely ask themselves: How on earth do they stay cool?
The answer is a mix of the spiritual and, yes, the creatively physical. The Hasidim will tell you they have learned to live comfortably in all seasons with their daily attire.
“I think I’m not as hot as other people because the sun is not on me,” said Chany Friedman, who was shopping recently in Borough Park, Brooklyn, with two of her five children in tow, wearing a sweater and dense stockings in addition to other concealing clothing. “If I’m covered, the sun is not on me. I’m happy that I’m not exposed to the world.” “That’s what Ha-Shem wants from us.”
 “Does anybody ask a congressman why he walks into Congress with a suit or a Wall Street executive why he goes to work in a suit?” asked Isaac Abraham, a leader in the Satmar Hasidic community.
Still, Hasidim have found subtle ways to beat the heat.
In Borough Park, women snatch up neckline-hugging shells that allow them to wear thin, long-sleeved and open-necked blouses from, say, Macy’s. Hasidic men seek a frock coat made of lighter-weight, drip-dry polyester, without a shape-holding canvas lining, and lightweight weaves in the fringed, four-cornered, woolen poncho known as tzitzit, a daily version of the prayer shawl that is worn over a white shirt. Also, men will go jacketless when working or driving, though any substantial stroll along a public sidewalk requires a suit jacket or frock coat, known in Yiddish as a rekel or in its longer and fancier Sabbath version as a bekishe.
Even the shtreimel, the tall, cylindrical, Russian sable hat that Hasidic men wear on the Sabbath to dignify the day, has been modified in recent years, with holes in the crown to provide a kind of ersatz air-conditioning. Those innovations may not seem to offer that much relief, but in Hasidic philosophy, it is more important to please God.
 “The equation of burden doesn’t come into play, when that’s the tradition you’re brought up in,” said Amram Weinstock, 65, a Satmar Hasid who was shopping at G&B Clothing in Borough Park, a store with racks of suits, in numbers to rival Brooks Brothers, although these suits come only in shades of black, navy blue and gray. “We are happy to live that tradition and feel uplifted by living that sort of life,” Mr. Weinstock said. “This is how our parents went; this is how our grandparents went.”
 “You shvitz!” the man said, using the Yiddish word for sweat. But his “what’s the big deal?” expression seemed to shrug off the problem as a piddling price to pay for a virtuous lifestyle.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

Revisiting The Topic of Beards and Dating

Being that it's that time of the year again (you know, sprout a beard for a while), I've decided to post some rather informative beard information courtesy of Peter Kim and his team of expert beard researchers. Below are some snippets, but be sure to check out the full visual "PhD in Facial Hair" here.

In case you're dating and wondering what that beard will do for you...
I suppose that's based on Scientific Proof that Women Hate Beards

Hmm... Sounds like a bearded arbitrage opportunity. 


Fascinating Correlation or maybe it's a coincidence. And Rabbis too!

                                 Lastly, a quick History Lesson for your Consideration:

To the victor go the trimmings!

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

Ichud Hakehillos And The Upcoming Internet Convention At Citi Field

Here is an intriguing Op-ed on Ichud Hakehillos' Upcoming Internet Convention At Citi Field by Dovid Teitelbaum. Definitely worth a read. 

"If the only way we can sell our children on Torah is by forbidding everything else, then we are bankrupt" Rabbi Shlomo Freifeldzt’’l. 

(This article is in response to the upcoming convention at Citi Field, click here for information. Lakewood local)

It’s beautiful to see such an effort being made amongst our Rabbanim regarding an issue that is finally being taken seriously. It’s also great that we have finally realized the futility in banning something that was inevitably going to be a part of our lives. Our sages taught us long ago “ Ein gozrin gezeirah she'ein hatzibbur yecholim la'amod bo.“ (Halachic deciders should not promulgate an edict if most of the population will not follow the edict). The reason for this principle is simple; the general population will start to lose respect for authority. And while it’s 15 years too late, the past is the past and all we can do is learn from it. But learn from it we must!

This huge problem certainly needs a huge solution, but I’m terribly afraid we are heading for a huge disappointment. If what I read in the pamphlets is true and our huge solution is filtering, then we have learned nothing from the past.

Filters sound good and make us feel good, but they are completely ineffective. A filter is only as effective as much as the person using it wants to be filtered. And while it’s a great way to stop pop-ups and inappropriate web-pages, it is irrelevant to the issue we are facing. I will be brief as to why filters don’t work by highlighting some facts people may be unaware of.

  1. TECHNOLOGICALLY- The Internet by design was created not to be filtered. By designing it as a web, no matter how much you try you can’t control the information. Look at the middle east countries where dictators were brought down by social networking. Of course they tried everything in their power to pull the plugs, but the Internet can’t be controlled. The MPAA tried to stop peer-to-peer file sharing and was never successful. The internet was designed in the 1960's using a system called packet switching so that traffic can always reroute itself, which makes censorship almost impossible.
  2. PASSWORD - When I was just 17 and the web was first starting to explode my father was visited by one of the first “filter companies”. They wanted his haskama. During the demonstration my father asked me what I thought. I sat down at the computer and with a few clicks bypassed the filter. My father told them to come back when my child can’t disable the filter. They never came back. I wasn’t a computer genius and you don’t have to be one. Any child can learn to break even the most sophisticated password protection. All you need is for one person to figure it out and within seconds all his friends will too. And for those without friends they can google it. Monitoring software can be disabled just as easily. So can the “chavrusa system”. Don’t be fooled by the companies trying to sell you their products.
  3. WIFI. Free unfiltered wireless internet is available almost anywhere you go. The current goal is to have wifi available free over the entire USA, as it is already in some cities. Any filter you have at home is irrelevant. Almost every new electronic device has wifi capability. And trying to password protect every one of them is an unrealistic goal.

I remember when some US senator came up with the idea to make inappropriate sites have a button that says “Click here if you are over 18”. He should be awarded the nobel prize for that brilliant idea!

Filtering and monitoring are necessary, and they work well in schools and public places, but if the point of this convention is about filters, then call it an expo and make it at the Jacob Javitz Center. Its time we deal with the new realities of the day and we therefore must look for real solutions.

Fortunately there are huge solutions but they take more effort than buying a $100 filter. It takes dedication and lots of time. The good news is, there are Rebbeyim and teachers that are willing to do it. We have B”H in our day a young generation of talent that is eager to help, but they need proper direction.

So, while Filters are important and sound great, I give it an F. An because it will Fail us and an because it willFool us into thinking we solved our problems.

The real solutions all start with an and they have an Excellent track record.
Education, Excitement, Entertainment, Endearment, Exposure, Expression, Embracement and Enjoyment!

Education – We need to educate our children by teaching them why our Jewish values are superior to the values they see outside (or now, online). We need to teach them how to handle challenges that come their way and stop making believe it doesn’t happen. Life is about making choices and we need to teach our children how to how to choose wisely, including on the Internet. When a Rebbi or teacher is unable to acknowledge that his class is using the Internet, he can’t have a discussion about it. When social networking is not allowed, how do you teach online privacy and safety.

Excitement – We need to make our schools more exciting. There are countless organizations that are using technology to make yiddishkeit more engaging and fun; from interactive jewish learning to smart-boards in the classrooms. With the vast information available on kosher websites, there is so much useful and helpful content for everyone to make use of today.

Entertainment – We need to bring kosher entertainment back to our youth. Concerts, rallies, and overnight trips should be encouraged not banned. Yes, they may learn less now, but in the long run we will have children who love to be Jewish.

Endearment – We need EVERY child feel wanted, both by his family and school. We need to get rid of names like “kids at risk” and “off the derech”. All of us are at risk and we should never judge others as off the derech. Every parent is told never to call their child “bad” because then they will then act bad. Same with these labels, they accomplish nothing. No child wants to go to an “at risk school”. Rebbeyim should treat every child as at risk. Schools and parents have to accept every child no matter what level of religiosity they’re at. Never should we make a child feel unwanted because it will cause shame to the rest of the family or because it will give the school a bad reputation.

Exposure  In the words of Rav Hirsch, If you keep a child indoors all the time then the first time he goes outdoors he will catch a cold. Instead we must expose them as youngsters so that when they get older and leave the home and face the outside world they will be prepared.

Expression – we must allow our children to express themselves. That means they can ask any questions they have. They should decide the topic of the day and we should listen to what they feel. No student should feel guilty for asking something that’s bothering them. Just as a therapist always asks “tell me how YOU feel about it” we should do the same in the classrooms.

Embracement- we need to embrace technology because that’s our connection to the younger generation. This is the way they communicates and it’s not going to change. When you mock texting, you mock them. When you ban facebook you’re banning them and your distancing yourself from their world. As one teenager told me; “ I’m not addicted to my cellphone or facebook, I’m addicted to my friends,” and who of us isn't?

Enjoyment - Lastly, we need to make sure our children find enjoyment as being Jewish. Better that we have less tests and let the children have more fun, rather then have them think Judaism is boring and undesirable. Because those who don't find enjoyment in being Jewish will either leave the fold or stay Jewish but resentful inside, which may even be worse.
We need to remember the words of Chazal “Chanoch Lena’ar al Pi Darko”. This R' Hirsch says is the golden rule of education of which the Torah requires of us. We have to evaluate each child and see where his/her strengths are and then equip and train them early for that which they will practice when they have outgrown our guidance. Whether it’s the path we envisioned for them or not, we shouldn't focus on changing our kids but working with them. Read the words carefully “teach them according to their future path” not ours!

I once asked my father why they keep banning all Jewish events, and he told me, because it’s the easy way out. Blaming is also easy. Parents blame the schools and the schools blame the parents. We blame our kids friends and we blame our neighbors. Now we found something new to blame, technology, and it cant even defend itself! In a recent book entitled “Off the Derech” Faranak Margolese interviews many teens as to why they went off the Derech. The three main reasons she found was, a lack of positive feelings, unanswered questions about Jewish beliefs and the ability for our children to develop their unique emotional and religious potential. Technology did not even make it on the list. Sure, the internet can be used as a tool for those looking to get away but so can everything. By blaming technology loose focus, we should aim to fix the source of the problem.

We can keep trying to shelter our kids more and more until we suffocate them or we can choose to teach them how to live as a frum Jew in the new millennium. It takes work and dedication to find real solutions, but if we don’t, we might as well start preparing for the 2nd convention in five years from now, where I'm sure a new updated filter will be announced!

Dovid Teitelbaum
Director, Camp Sdei Chemed International
*My haskamas are from the 100’s of teens I know looking for real answers and real direction in this very confusing world we live in today; and from the elephant in the room.

Friday, April 6, 2012

Happy Holidays

Happy Potato Holiday to All!
 Have a "Good Friday" and chag kasher v'sameach! :-)

Sunday, April 1, 2012

Cost of Matzoh

How is it that Hand Shmura Matzoh costs more per lb. than some of the most expensive cuts of meat, such as Prime Rib!?! Personally, I paid about $18 per lb, and I know many people who pay significantly more! (I hear Gluten Free is even more than that @$30 for 3!) Pure craziness I tell you. You'd think they're making the stuff with either oil or gold! :-) I wouldn't be surprised if there was some price collusion/ implicit conspiracy going on behind the scenes to keep prices so high. 

Passover Seder 5771 - Shmurah matzah
An Edible Commodity?  

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Monday, February 13, 2012

So Funny, Yet so Mean...

Valentine's Day Activities

Valentine's Day Card

Thursday, February 2, 2012

Oh Baby

The author says: the bottles are NOT for sale, they are part of an art exhibition. This is an art project to raise social awareness on topics such as alcohol abuse by teens, alcohol abuse by pregnant women, the disinterest of some parents towards their children (abandoned for days between toys and video games), how far marketers can go to gain the attention of their younger customers. There are no commercial purposes.

Tuesday, January 31, 2012

The “Poo” of Parenting

Djess zwemt in schone pampers

Being a parent isn’t all fun and games. Every stage has its benefits and challenges.  A commonality seems to be that no matter what stage of life you’re in, someone is always ready to give you advice. (More context on the topic of advice to be provided in a subsequent post). Or as one person told us, “enjoy them when their young and the step on your toes before they get older and step on your heart.” 

Regardless, aside from lack of sleep, the challenges that entail include changing poopie diapers, dodging up spit-up, and getting my daughter (Little Miss Potato Head, LMPH) to burp.  Yeah, last night I got doused in spit-up. I mean like a tidal wave of the stuff. I really hope Shout pre-treatment is okay on Tzitzis strings. :-/ But aside from that I guess I can’t really complain.  Oh, except for the poopie diaper thing; I am not a fan.  

Yummy? :-/

As things went, I actually got rather lucky in the diaper changing department. I think I went some 8-odd weeks without finding a poopie diaper on “my shift.” My luck, however, seems to have run out. Recently, I received the indelible gift, of not one, not two, but three poopies.  I have to admit I gaged a little the first time. ( I’ve heard from “experts” that formula based poopies smell worse, and I suppose I now concur.) The constancy and color resembles deli mustard and smells kinda like bean curd gone terribly bad. Blah! (Remember that factoid next time you're eating a chili-dog with mustard. :-P)

I suppose none of this is really noteworthy, perhaps with the exception of poopie number two which will forever be noted in my mind as EPIC. I mean we’re talking a load that extended from the posterior to the upper back. Perhaps a poopie explosion might be more apt way of describing it. Front to back you say? I think not; this relief effort required up-down, left-right, and a windshield wiper like motion. Yeah… Parenthetically, I nearly ran out of wipes at the time which was rather alarming given the circumstances. Phew. Ah, the things we do for love… ;-)  

As an aside, I am rather curious how no one has come up with a heter to absolve men of an obligation to change their daughter’s diapers or any diaper really. Tznius? Kavod Ha’Torah? Perhaps someone can help me out here! :-D (Just kidding :-P or not…) 

Diaper head
Like that is going to help... 

Monday, January 30, 2012

Social Media Guru

The "Experts"

Thursday, January 26, 2012

Is Blogging Dead (or Dying)?

The Passage of Time
Time Goes by So Slowly...

Is it just me or is blogging on the overall decline? Looking at my daily tally of new post in Google Reader, it would seem that bloggers have taken a serious hiatus. 

Personally, my excuse (and probably the excuse of many other bloggers) is that at a certain point in time life just becomes too busy to unswervingly type out coherent post. That’s not say I (or others) don’t have what to post about; I can assure you that is not the case. 

But in all fairness, who has the time to consistently post nowadays? Or more aptly, if one had to choose the best use of one’s (potentially limited) leisure time, would writing and proofing a blog post really be that high on the list? I surmise not. If you take into consideration that most bloggers are not paid any form of consideration (other than page hits/comments/ ego boosts) for their services, the benefits of maintaining a blog seem marginal.  

The other competing theory that I have been entertaining is that the usefulness of blogging has been diminished by social media. Why share random thoughts and inspirations with random strangers, when you can share them with your friends (acquaintances, or random strangers) on Facebook. Alternatively, why write a long-winded post centered around one discombobulated thought when you could just condense it into a tweet of 160 characters or so.  You can even get comments in real-time and perhaps spark a nice intellectual discussion! 

I don't think blogging will ever really die as it does have a very distinct purpose. Where else are you supposed to write long diatribes about utter randomness to be read by random people? Yet Blogging just seems so lacking and inefficient by comparison to its peers. Perhaps someone will recreate the blogging experience and restore it to it's original glory (Google perhaps?) but until that day comes it seems like the tide is heading out to sea... 

Receding water on the UWGB bayshore
A Sea of Change

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Do you Speak Baby? We Do!

My wife found this. At first I was skeptical, but it really works! 

I think Mrs. Dunstan should make an app for simplicity, but I'm still amazed at the process and principle. Nonetheless, we're still wondering what Wah! means, but it's still a great start. It could very well be our daughter (a.k.a. little miss potato head!) has her own dialect, but we are starting to understand her somewhat. We make small talk. ;-) We've tried asking our daughter these words, but that route hasn't been as successful. Eh? 

Watch Mrs. Dunstan in action on Opera! 

Sunday, January 8, 2012

Baby Potatoes

baby bentrup
Not our Baby. A Flickr Baby! (p.s. our baby is cuter, just saying ;-))
I’ve come to the conclusion that cradle cap smells like potatoes. I first realized this when I babysat (i.e. practiced) my nephew. The kid had more cradled cap then my daughter, so the smell was more vivid. But in all the irony, the kid is allergic to potatoes so go figure… It took my wife some time to believe me, but even she has finally come around. It’s kind of odd that I now have to change my clothes when I smell like baby. In other words, when I smell like an odd mixture of potatoes, ricotta cheese, and Dreft (baby detergent). It’s really an endearing smell. I think it should be marketed as cologne although I am unsure who the target market would be.

The parents? 
On that note, I think J&J got it wrong with its baby wash. Head to Toe soap? I think that stuff just makes babies smell like clean potatoes. As an alternative, I think McCormick should be making baby shampoo. I’m thinking garlic and chive might be a start. :-) Embrace the potatoes! (Parenthetically, I think I’m going to call the baby little miss potato head ;-)) And on that note, I am going to refrain from eating instant baby mashed potato (flakes); that’s just a little too close to home. ;-)

Lastly, on the subject of potato related matters, the wife and I made some hand-grated potato kugel this week. For the record, we only use the finest grated-hand! I think I counted at least seven “booboos” on my hands. I’m sure you’re asking yourself “why on earth would you hand grate a potato kugel nowadays?” The simple answer is: because that is how it was done in the alter heim and who are we to question our customs! Just kidding. :-P Basically, we had a few extra potatoes lying around, and I figured it was easier to grate a few potatoes by hand then set-up, wash, and clean a food processor. Clearly I was wrong, as my fingers can now attest. I do recall quipping to TAW that I had found a quicker blade setting by using the micro-spaghetti type side. :-P Let just say that the kugel was made out of blood, sweat, and tears; well at least two out of three. :-/ In the end, it all worked out okay, hand-grated and grated-hand and all. And yes, it tasted fine.

This won't hurt a all...right?

Btw, does anyone know if milk-based formula spit-up is milchigs?